Involvement in GSM

Nokia was one of the key developers of GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications),[34] the second-generation mobile technology which could carry data as well as voice traffic. NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephony), the world's first mobile telephony standard that enabled international roaming, provided valuable experience for Nokia for its close participation in developing GSM, which was adopted in 1987 as the new European standard for digital mobile technology.[35][36] Nokia delivered its first GSM network to the Finnish operator Radiolinja in 1989.[37] The world's first commercial GSM call was made on 1 July 1991 in Helsinki, Finland over a Nokia-supplied network, by then Prime Minister of Finland Harri Holkeri, using a prototype Nokia GSM phone.[37] In 1992, the first GSM phone, the Nokia 1011, was launched.[37][38] The model number refers to its launch date, 10 November.[38] The Nokia 1011 did not yet employ Nokia's characteristic ringtone, the Nokia tune. It was introduced as a ringtone in 1994 with the Nokia 2100 series.[39] GSM's high-quality voice calls, easy international roaming and support for new services like text messaging (SMS) laid the foundations for a worldwide boom in mobile phone use.[37] GSM came to dominate the world of mobile telephony in the 1990s, in mid-2008 accounting for about three billion mobile telephone subscribers in the world, with more than 700 mobile operators across 218 countries and territories. New connections are added at the rate of 15 per second, or 1.3 million per day. NMT (Nordisk MobilTelefoni or Nordiska MobilTelefoni-gruppen, Nordic Mobile Telephony in English) is the first fully automatic cellular phone system. It was specified by Nordic telecommunications administrations (PTTs) and opened for service in 1 October 1981 as a response to the increasing congestion and heavy requirements of the manual mobile phone networks: ARP (150 MHz) in Finland and MTD (450 MHz) in Sweden and Denmark and OLT in Norway. NMT is based on analog technology (first generation or 1G) and two variants exist: NMT-450 and NMT-900. The numbers indicate the frequency bands uses. NMT-900 was introduced in 1986 because it carries more channels than the previous NMT-450 network. The NMT specifications were free and open, allowing many companies to produce NMT hardware and pushing the prices down. The success of NMT meant a lot to Nokia (then Mobira) and Ericsson. First Danish implementers were Storno (then owned by General Electric, later taken over by Motorola) and AP (later taken over by Philips). Initial NMT phones were designed to mount in the trunk of a car, with a keyboard/display unit at the drivers seat. "Portable" versions existed: one could definitely move them, but they were bulky, and battery lifetime was a big problem. Latter-day models (such as Benefon's) were as small as 100 mm (3.9 inches) and weighed only about 100 grams.